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Opacity meters:
  • Opacity meters are instruments used to measure the opacity or smoke density in emissions from sources such as industrial stacks, chimneys, and exhaust systems. Proper calibration of opacity meters is essential to ensure accurate and reliable measurements.
  • The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in India issues guidelines and standards related to various environmental aspects, including the calibration of parameters for monitoring air and water quality. Calibration of parameters is crucial in ensuring the accuracy and reliability of monitoring equipment used to measure pollutants.
  • CPCB or other environmental regulatory authorities may specify the frequency at which instruments should be calibrated. Regular calibration ensures that measurements remain accurate over time.
  • The manufacturer's instructions and guidelines are followed for calibration. Manufacturers provide specific procedures and standards for calibrating their equipment, including recommended intervals for calibration and any specific tools or references are needed.
  • A reference standard or a calibrated source are used to calibrate the opacity meter. Reference standards often involve using specific calibration filters or instruments with known opacity levels to calibrate the meter.
  • Opacity meters typically undergo zero and span calibration. Zero calibration ensures that the meter reads zero when no smoke is present. Span calibration involves setting the meter to read correctly at the upper end of the scale, using a reference standard with a known, high level of opacity.
  • Making necessary adjustments based on the calibration results to ensure that the meter accurately measures the opacity levels in exhaust gases. This might involve adjusting internal settings or parameters within the meter.
  • The repeatability and linearity of the meter are checked. Repeatability ensures consistent results when the same measurement is repeated, and linearity ensures that the meter provides proportional readings across its entire measurement range.
  • All calibration activities are documented. Records of the calibration process are kept, adjustments made, calibration factors applied, deviations from standard procedures, and any maintenance or repairs are performed. These records are important for quality control, audits, and compliance purposes.
  • Regular checks and periodic recalibration are necessary to ensure that the opacity meter continues to provide accurate and reliable measurements over time.

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