Around 90% of traded goods are carried over the waves. As such, the oceans provide the main transport arteries for global trade. Pollution emissions from international vessels have a significant impact on public health and global climate changes. In addition, shipping companies have also emphasized environmental policy for the purpose of achieving corporate social responsibility and eco-efficiency. MSK marine services help your business comply with shipping regulations. As the maritime industry becomes increasingly regulated, it is vital your business ensures its ships and cargo are compliant with relevant regulations and are safe for stakeholders and the environment.
Expected growth in ship traffic will add significantly to local air quality problems and global climate-change risks unless ship emissions are further controlled. During the burning process in marine diesel engines, boilers, and incinerators, these fuels can produce significant amounts of black smoke, particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), un-burned hydrocarbons (UHC), sulfur oxides (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), etc. Table 1.1. IMO (2000) estimated CO2, NOx, and SOx emission, which were based on an estimate of marine bunker fuel consumption and a statistical model, found that ocean-going vessels accounted for about 1.8 percent of global CO2 emissions.
Table 1.1 Ambient Air Quality Standard
|Parameter||Unit||Value exposures||IFC Standard1||Method of Estimation|
|SO2||μg/m3||24hrs (average)||20 (guideline)||IS: 5182 (Part 2)|
|CO||mg/m3||1hr (Max)||–||IS: 5182 (Part 10)|
|NO2||μg/m3||24hrs (average)||40 (annual)||IS: 5182 (Part 6)|
|PM10||μg/m3||24hrs (average)||150 (ITM1)||IS: 5182 (Part 23)|
|PM2.5||μg/m3||24hrs (average)||75 (ITM1)||IS 5182 (PT-24),2019|
|SPM||μg/m3||8hrs||–||IS 5182: Part4:1999 (Reaff.2014)|
|Pb||μg/m3||8hrs||160 (ITM1)||USEPA IO-3.4|
1IFC EHS General Guidelines, 2007
Long-term exposure to noise can cause a variety of health effects including annoyance, sleep disturbance, negative effects on the cardiovascular and metabolic system. On the vessel any machinery activities induce noise level in the ambient environment e.g. shipyard movement, moving machinery, engine room, compressors, welding machine, small generators and other activities. The monitoring on the vessel deck is done as per IFC EHS General Guidelines, 2007 (Table 1.2) which details are as follows:
Table 1.2. Noise level as per IFC, 2007 standard
|Location Category||Standards determined at dB(A) Leq unit1|
1IFC EHS General Guidelines, 2007
Water safety and quality are fundamental to crew members and passengers onboard. Considering that water storage and distribution systems on ships are complex and could provide conditions for bacterial contamination, potable water on ships must be obtained only from those water sources and water supplies that provide potable water and are approved by WHO 2008, ISO 10500 and other national and international standards.
Table 1.3. Drinking water quality analysis
|I||Physico-chemical Analysis||Odour, Colour, Temperature, pH, Turbidity,Total Dissolved Solids (as TDS), Dissolved Oxygen|
|II||Chemical parameters||Calcium (as Ca), Magnesium (as Mg), Total Hardness (as CaCO3 ), Sodium (as Na), Potassium (as K), Chloride (as Cl ), Fluoride ( as F ), Nitrate (as NO3 ), Sulphate ( as SO4 ), Anionic Detergents (as MBAS), Oil and Grease, Phosphate (as PO4)|
|III||Heavy Metals||Iron (as Fe), Manganese (as Mn), Zinc (as Zn), Aluminium ( as Al ), Cadmium (as Cd), Lead (as Pb ), Mercury (as Hg ), Nickel (as Ni ), Arsenic( as As), Copper (as Cu), Total Chromium ( as Cr )|
|IV||Biochemical and bacterial parameters||Biochemical Oxygen Demand (as BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total coliform bacteria, Faecal coliform|
|V||Pesticide||Chlorine, sulphate and phosphate group of pesticides|
|VI||Radioactive||Alpha emitters, Beta emitters|
World Health Organization (WHO), (Guide to Ship Sanitation, 3rd Edition, 2011 & Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2008) MLC 2006 (Standard A3.2-Food & Catering), European Union (EU), Drinking-Water Directive (DWD) 98/83/EC International Health Regulations (IHR) of WHO
Sewage pollution control was the first environmental initiative in history. Technologies and regulations for land-based wastewater industries have been evolving for more than a century, bringing tangible improvements to our aqua environment. The IMO’s MARPOL Annex IV Convention, which aims at achieving the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships, was developed in the 1970s, and entered into force since 2003, EPA, 2002, and MECP. 227.(64), 2012.
Table 1.4. Sewage discharge standard for the shipping industry
|BOD||mg/l||25||40||APHA (23rd Edition) 5210B 2017|
|COD||mg/l||125||120||APHA (23rd Edition) 5220B, 2017|
|Total Phosphorous||mg/l||1||–||APHA 22nd Edtn-2012, 4500P-D|
|Total Nitrogen||mg/l||20||–||APHA 23rd EDN 4500N C|
|pH||None||6-8.5||6-9||IS 2720 (Part 26)-1987;Rffm:2011|
|Total coliform||MPN/100ml||–||<400||IS 1622 : 1981 (RA 2014)|
IS 1622 : 1981 (RA 2014)
aMarine Environment Protection Committee (MECP.227.(64)), 2012. bEnvironment Protection Act (EPA, 2002), General Notice No.44.of 2003, regulation 4.
MitraSK Marine Testing Services
MSK offers a new comprehensive on-board water testing service for shipping companies and vessel owners. All on-board sampling is performed by qualified professionals who will collect the necessary samples in sterile containers and will then send off the samples to our retained laboratory for analysis. MSK operates in most major ports around the world and we offer a comprehensive range of sample collection services, laboratory analysis and consultancy services to the maritime sector. Our services include:
- Ambient Air Estimation
- Inspection and testing for indoor air quality (IAQ)
- Stake Emission Sampling and Analysis
- Noise Level Estimation
- Ambient Noise Level Estimation
- Occupational Noise Level Estimation
- Drinking-Water Quality Estimation
- Scrubber washwater sampling and testing
- Wastewater sampling and analysis
- Testing of solid bulk cargo residues
- Hygiene services and food safety
- Ballast water sampling and testing
Why choose MSK?
With over 80 years of experience working with the maritime industry, and personnel in most major ports around the globe, MSK is the first choice for companies looking to develop strategies that ensure sampling and testing of as many required parameters as necessary in one sampling intervention.
Figure 1.1. On-board sampling and analysis of environmental commodities
Ambient Air Sampling
Ambient Noise and Occupational Noise Sampling
Figure 1.2. Environmental & Ecological Monitoring work carried out by Mitra SK Bangladesh (Pvt.) Ltd. For Summit LNG Terminal Co. (Pvt.) Ltd. Project at Maheshkhali, Cox’s Bazar