STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF BURNING TEMPERATURE ON THE COMPOSITION OF WOOD BARK ASH

STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF BURNING TEMPERATURE ON THE COMPOSITION OF WOOD BARK ASH

By: admin | Thursday, December 28th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction Wood ash is the organic and inorganic residue remaining after combustion of wood. When ash is produced in industrial combustion systems, the temperature of combustion, cleanliness of the fuel wood, the collection location, and the process have profound effects on the nature of ash material. The wood ash is used mainly to produce potash …


read more

ESTIMATION OF ZINC DROSS BY WET CHEMICAL & INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS

By: admin | Thursday, December 28th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction True dross is an alloy of 6% iron and 94% zinc. Dross is a mass of solid impurities which floats on a molten metal or it may be dispersed in the metal such as in wrought iron. It generally forms on the surface of low melting metals such as tin, lead, zinc or aluminium. …


read more

DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE MATTER COMPOSITION OF PET COKE USING GC-MS

By: admin | Thursday, December 28th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction Petroleum coke (pet coke) is one of the many products manufactured during the oil refining process. During the refining process, a number of fractions including gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, lubricating oils and waxes are separated leaving behind reduced or heavy crude that cannot be recovered without further processing. The residue crude may be …


read more

ANALYSIS OF NON FERROUS ORES IN SOLUTION PHASE USING XRF TECHNIQUE

By: admin | Thursday, December 28th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

table Liquid sample analysis using XRF can be the easiest or most difficult depending upon the composition and stability of the liquid1. Liquid samples can initiate several problems such as evaporation, precipitation, wicking, stratification and most commonly spillage. On the positive side, solutions are essentially homogeneous that gives them a theoretical edge over the conventional …


read more

DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM CARBONATE FILLER IN POLYMERIC BAG BY ACID BASE TITRATION

By: admin | Thursday, December 28th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction Calcium carbonate is extensively used in different polymeric yarns and threads to increase their strength and flexibility. Manufacturing of polymer bags is one area where yarns with good stability and flexibility are of utmost importance. Therefore, it is important to ascertain the amount of calcium carbonate in polymer because if used in excess it …


read more

ABSORPTION STUDY OF Cr(+6) AND HENCE TO FIND OUT A METHOD OF ESTIMATION

By: admin | Thursday, December 28th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Principle: Absorption of wavelength in UV and visible range are characteristics of outermost electronic configuration in atoms/ions. Based on this principle an approach was made to estimate Cr (+6) in presence of Cr(+6),Cr(+3),Al(+3),Fe(+3) without addition of any reagent. Following are the electronic configuration of Cr(+6), Cr(+3), Al(+3), Fe(+3) respectively. Cr(+6): Cr(+3): Al(+3):       …


read more

ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE DYE ON FLY ASH

By: admin | Monday, August 28th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: Effluents from various industries such as paper, fabric, leather, dyestuff productions etc. contain harmful colouring agents that require effective removal to maintain the environment1. Various dyes present in the industrial waste water have a lethal effect in living organisms within a short exposure time. Effective and economic disposal of those dyes is one of …


read more

DETERMINATION OF REACTIVE SILICA IN FLY ASH GRAVIMETRICALLY

By: admin | Wednesday, August 2nd, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: Fly ash is a fine powder obtained as a by-product when pulverized coal undergoes combustion in an electric generation power plants. The fly ash particles so obtained come out of the boiler along with the flue gases and subsequently captured using electrostatic precipitators or bag filters. Fly ash acts as a pozzolan i.e. it …


read more

An Investigation On The Properties Of Silicone Oil Using ICP-OES/TGA-DSC & FTIR

By: admin | Tuesday, May 30th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: A silicone oil is any liquid polymerized siloxane with organic side chains. The most important member is polydimethylsiloxane. These polymers are of commercial interest because of their relatively high thermal stability and their lubricating properties. Polymer backbone of silicone oil consists of alternating silicon oxygen atoms. According to the chemical structure, the silicone oil …


read more

Complexometric Determination of Copper

By: admin | Monday, May 15th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Complexometric Determination of Copper Copper occurs both in combined state and free state and also in many ores. The abundance of copper in earth’s crust is estimated to be 70 parts per million. The important ores of copper are: Copper pyrites or Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), Cuprite (Cu2O) and Copper glance (Cu2S). The leading producers of copper …


read more

Investigation On Transportable Moisture Limit

By: admin | Monday, May 15th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Investigation On Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) Of Coal An Investigation On Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) Of Coal Using Proctorfagerberg Method Introduction: Coal is an organic material which has been subjected to heat and pressure over time. It is primarily composed of carbon with variable quantities of other components and it changes in the proportions of …


read more

Investigation On The Properties Of Silicone Oil

By: admin | Monday, May 15th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

An Investigation On The Properties Of Silicone Oil Using ICP-OES/TGA-DSC & FTIR Introduction: A silicone oil is any liquid polymerized siloxane with organic side chains. The most important member is polydimethylsiloxane. These polymers are of commercial interest because of their relatively high thermal stability and their lubricating properties. Polymer backbone of silicone oil consists of …


read more

A Thermo-gravimetric and FTIR study

By: admin | Monday, May 15th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

A Thermo-gravimetric and FTIR study for Estimation of Different Constituent in an Iron Ore with Reference to the Different Phases Introduction: An iron ore usually consists of hematite and other impurities like Alumina silicates. LOI for iron ores essentially corresponds to the combined water content from goethite / limonite and impurities such as Kaolinite etc, …


read more

AN INVESTIGATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF SILICONE OIL USING ICP-OES/TGA-DSC & FTIR

By: admin | Thursday, March 23rd, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: A silicone oil is any liquid polymerized siloxane with organic side chains. The most important member is polydimethylsiloxane. These polymers are of commercial interest because of their relatively high thermal stability and their lubricating properties. Polymer backbone of silicone oil consists of alternating silicon oxygen atoms. According to the chemical structure, the silicone oil …


read more

BURNING PROFILES FOR PREDICTION OF COMBUSTION BEHAVIOUR OF COAL

By: admin | Sunday, February 5th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Coal is an alternative form of energy, and the uses of coal are mainly for power generation by thermal power plants, household heating and other industrial usage. The physical and chemical properties of coal and material derived from coal are of considerable importance in industrial coal utilization. The characterization of coal is vital for the …


read more

ANALYSIS OF CASSITERITE OREDETERMINATION OF COPPER

By: admin | Monday, January 30th, 2017 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: Tin does not occur as the native element but must be extracted from various ores. The main commercial tinfields of the world are West of England, Brittany, and Erzgeburge; Burma, Siam, Malay States, and Indonesia; Bolivia; Nigeria; Australasia; and Southern Africa. Cassiterite (SnO2) otherwise known as tinstone, is the only tin mineral that is …


read more

STUDY OF INDUSTRIAL ZN DROSS BY FTIR AND CLASSICAL INDUSTRIAL PROCESS

By: admin | Friday, December 9th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: Dross is a material, which forms on the surface of molten non-ferrous metal, such as aluminum or zinc, during melting, metal holding and handling operations when the molten metal is in contact with a reactive atmosphere. Dross normally consists of metal oxides entraining a considerable quantity of molten free (unreacted) metal, and for economic …


read more

DEGRADATION OF COKE REACTIVITY DUE TO ALKALI ABSORPTION

By: admin | Tuesday, December 6th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: The properties of different raw materials have great impact on the efficiency and productivity of blast furnace iron making process. The performance of raw materials are significantly deteriorated in presence of very small amount of alkalis. Alkaline elements like sodium (Na) and potassium (K) have been marked as detrimental for furnace operations because they …


read more

CHARACTERIZATION OF GEMSTONES USING ED-XRF TECHNIQUE

By: admin | Tuesday, December 6th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (ED-XRF) is a well-established tool for multi-element composition analysis in different fields. It works non-conducting and it is non-destructive. No particular sample preparation is necessary if the specimens have an almost planar and smooth surface. For the characterization of precious gemstone material it is also important that the …


read more

ANALYSIS OF BERYLLIUM FROM BERYL ORE

By: admin | Tuesday, September 27th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: Beryllium is rare in the earth’s crust (6×10−4 % per weight) and its presence is rather limited. It does not occur as free metal in nature.    There are about 30 minerals containing beryllium, the most significant of them being beryl (3BeO·Al2O3·6SiO2), phenacite (2BeO·SiO2), chrysoberyl (BeO·Al2O3) and bertrandite (4BeO·2SiO2·H2O). The main interest in beryllium is its …


read more

ESTIMATION OF NICOTINE FROM DIFFERENT TOBACCO PRODUCTS

By: admin | Monday, September 26th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the leaves of tobacco. Nicotine, 3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) pyridine is a colourless, less to pale yellow, hygroscopic oily liquid present in the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. Nicotine is one of the most highly toxic compounds belonging to the tobacco alkaloids. A preliminary investigation using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to analyze …


read more

IMPACT OF WEATHERING ON COKING COAL

By: admin | Monday, May 23rd, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: Coal can be classified as coking or non coking depending on its behavior when heated to a temperature of about 7000C to 10000C in absence of air. If coal softens, de-volatilizes and solidifies into porous hard solid coke, it is classified as coking or caking coal. If the residue left on heating in absence …


read more

COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF TYRES USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY

By: admin | Thursday, March 31st, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: In view of the push to find alternative energy sources to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, waste tires serve as a source of high quality fuel, having a high calorific value that is roughly similar to that of coal, yet their heterogeneity posses issues with regard to complete burnout and emissions. Tyre elastomeric materials …


read more

DETERMINATION OF TRACE LEVEL IMPURITIES IN HIGH PURITY METALS USING MICROWAVE DIGESTION FOLLOWED BY SEQUENTIAL ICP-OES WITH AXIAL VIEWING

By: admin | Wednesday, January 27th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: The determination of trace impurities in high purity metals is essential in order to control quality and to improve manufacturing technology. Trace impurities can have major effects on the properties of the finished products, and in many cases it is desirable to minimize, or at least to be able to control, the levels of …


read more

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF POWDER MATERIALS USING ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLOUROSENCE SPECTROSCOPY

By: admin | Wednesday, January 27th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: X-ray fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) is one of the best analytical techniques to perform elemental analysis in all kinds of samples. This technique offers a very simple, fast and relatively inexpensive analysis method in laboratory and production facilities resulting highest accuracy and precision involving fast sample preparation for the analysis of elements from Beryllium (Be) …


read more

HEAVY METAL ABSORPTION IN LEAVES NEAR THE THERMAL POWER PLANT, STEEL PLANT AND AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRIES AREA

By: admin | Wednesday, January 27th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: The trees and tree leaves are absorbing heavy metals from the constituents of environment. The waste materials of industries like fly ash of thermal power plant, slag of steel plant and engine oils of automobile industries are contaminating the soils of these areas. The waste materials contain heavy metals which increases the toxicity of …


read more

DETERMINATION OF PHOSPHOROUS IN REFINED SOYBEAN OIL

By: admin | Tuesday, January 5th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Principles:   Estimation of phosphorous in edible oil is one of the most important parameter to be ascertained. Two different methods were tried for analysis of phosphorous in different soybean oils and values from the different methods were compared against each other. The first method was spectrophotometric method converting phosphorous to phosphomolybdate complex and measuring the …


read more

STUDY OF OXIDATION OF MAGNETITE IN MAGNETITE ORE USING THERMO GRAVIMETRY

By: admin | Monday, January 4th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: A constant level of oxidation in magnetite ores is also of importance for process stability. A distinct concentric oxidation front between the oxidized outer shell and the non-oxidized core is found in magnetite ores oxidized at temperatures above 1000° C. The time needed for 80% oxidation of magnetite ores at 900°C was 8 minutes with …


read more

DETERMINATION OF COBALT IN PURE COBALT METAL BY COMPLEXOMETRIC ANALYSIS

By: admin | Monday, January 4th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: Cobalt is a hard, silver-gray metal that melts at 1495°C. As a pure metal, cobalt is used in electroplating applications to create hard, oxidation resistant surfaces. Due to its magnetic, corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant properties, along with its strength at relatively high temperatures, cobalt is predominantly used as an alloyed metal in the production of …


read more

PROCTOR FAGERBERG TEST METHOD: A NEW APPROACH FOR DETERMINING TRANSPORTABLE MOISTURE LIMIT (TML) IN IRON ORE FINES

By: admin | Monday, January 4th, 2016 | blogs | No Comments

Significance of Transportable Moisture Limit (TML): Solid bulk cargoes such as fines and concentrates may appear to be in a relatively dry granular state when loaded, however they may still contain sufficient moisture to become fluid under the stimulus of the compaction and vibration that occurs during a voyage. The resulting cargo shift can be …


read more

DETERMINATION OF TUNGSTEN IN FERRO TUNGSTEN BY GRAVIMETRIC METHOD

By: admin | Wednesday, December 2nd, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: Ferro tungsten is an alloy, which is formed by combining iron and tungsten. It is a remarkably robust alloy because of its high melting point. Tungsten has the highest melting point after carbon. By combining iron with tungsten, the tendencies towards brillleness are overcome from the raw state of tungsten. Principle: Tungsten is analysed …


read more

POTENTIOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF CHROMIUM AND VANADIUM

By: admin | Thursday, October 15th, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Potentiometric titration is a technique of one kind of Redox Reaction. For this titration two electrodes are used, one is indicator electrode, indicating the Redox Reaction change in potential(pt, electrode) and another is reference electrode. Reference electrodes used are calomel electrode. The indicator electrode forms an electrochemical half cell, Emf of the Redox half cell is given by the Nernst equation …


read more

CENOSPHERES – AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

By: admin | Monday, May 18th, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Free flowing powders consisting of minute microspheres, usually hollow often obtained from pulverised fuel ash are stated as cenospheres. This study was undertaken to have an idea about the physical and chemical characteristics of cenospheres and to suggest their uses with the help of existing facilities. Methodology used for this purpose  Microscopy to find out …


read more

ents PURITY CHECK OF HIGHER ALCOHOLS BY FT-IR

By: admin | Monday, May 18th, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction A molecule absorbs a unique set of IR light frequencies. It’s IR spectrum is often linked to a person’s fingerprints. These frequencies match the natural vibrational modes of the molecule. Applying this theory, some different types of alcohols are investigated and estimated by FT-IR.  The IR frequencies of different alcohols of various concentrations are …


read more

BETA CAROTENE IN VEGETABLE OIL

By: admin | Wednesday, April 22nd, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction β – Carotene is generally regarded as the most commercially important and widely used carotenoid. It is used as a food coloring agent. It has an anti-oxidant activity. It is currently used incorporated in a wide variety of dietary supplements including multivitamin, Vitamin A and anti-oxidant formulation. Principle The analysis of beta carotene is …


read more

STUDIES ON THE FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT EDIBLE OILS AVAILABLE IN MARKET

By: admin | Wednesday, April 22nd, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction:  The main objective of this work is to identify the fatty acid composition of various vegetable oils and fats available in market. Ten vegetable oils and fats were analyzed for its fatty acid composition by Gas-chromatography (GC-FID). On vegetable oils, each position on the glycerol molecule may be esterified by a different fatty acid …


read more

LEACHABILTY TEST OF HAZARDOUS WASTE IN SOLID SAMPLE BY TCLP EXTRACTION DEVICE

By: admin | Wednesday, April 22nd, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction  Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is a soil/sludge sample extraction method for chemical analysis employed as an analytical method to simulate leaching through a landfill. The testing methodology is used to determine if a waste is characteristically hazardous. As extremely contaminated material is expensive to dispose, grading is necessary to ensure safe disposal and to avoid extra payment …


read more

MICROBIOLOGICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY (TREND ANALYSIS) OF LOCAL GANGA WATER AND COMMERCIAL WATER

By: admin | Thursday, April 9th, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Abstract: Five different samples of water from Local Ganga River is collected and the microbial counts were compared with five samples of commercially available water according to IS 14543 to show whether the river water is fit for drinking or not.  Principle: Sample water 1-Local Ganga water. Sample water2-Commercial water 2.5 litres of Ganga water …


read more

A CORELATION BETWEEN OXIDATION & THERMAL SUSCEPTIBILITY BEHAVIOR IN COAL

By: admin | Wednesday, April 1st, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

INTRODUCTION: Coal itself is a physically heterogeneous and chemically complex substance.  Before being mined, underground coal exists in a water-saturated, oxygen-free environment. Any disturbance of this environment such as a change in the temperature, moisture content or oxygen partial pressure, will affect the coal’s physical and chemical stability. This dynamic behavior of coal is termed …


read more

QUANTIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANOTIN COMPOUNDS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

By: admin | Wednesday, April 1st, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Abstract Analysis of organotin compound is becoming increasingly important in environmental samples. Analytical method for speciation of targeted organotin compound using gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) in water, soil and sludge had been carried out. Samples were extracted by n-hexane and toluene and were then derivatized for GC/MS analysis. Confirmation had been done with GC-MS/MS. Ethylation …


read more

DEHYDRATION AND THERMAL DECOMPOSITION STUDY OF COPPER SULPHATE PENTAHYDRATE USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY

By: admin | Monday, March 30th, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: The mass of crystal water in copper sulphate hydrates can be measured using Thermogravimetry. However, the dehydration of crystal water in hydrated copper sulphate often occurs over several steps at close temperatures and standard test methods often do not completely isolate these multiple dehydration reactions. In the present work, Perkin Elmer’s TGA-DTA-DSC thermal analyzer …


read more

DETERMINATION OF FEO IN CHROMITE ORE

By: admin | Monday, February 16th, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction:   The chromite ore is normally having a composition of FeCr2O4 which may be written as FeO.Cr2O3. In some ore Fe is partially replaced by Mg as (Fe, Mg) Cr2O4. The ore may have Fe in other form besides being present in the spinel. An accurate determination of FeO content is extremely important in …


read more

TIN-EDTA COMPLEXOMETRIC METHOD

By: admin | Monday, February 16th, 2015 | blogs | No Comments

INTRODUCTION: Volumetric estimation of tin by iodimetric titration has some disadvantages because throughout the entire process CO2atmosphere to be maintained strictly to avoid aerial oxidation of Sn2+ to Sn4+. Moreover std. iodine solution is volatile to some extent. Standard iodine solution as well as distilled water used in the analysis should be entirely free from dissolved …


read more

ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN BY HPLC ON FOOD BY ARTIFICIALLY INDUCED CONDITION OF FUNGAL GROWTH

By: admin | Friday, December 19th, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

Abstract: Toxins are of many types that include the bacterial toxins, plant toxins and several other toxins produced by micro-organisms. But of all toxins, fungal toxins are the most potent one. The fungal toxins are produced by several pathogenic strains of fungi. Food that most human consume are mainly prone to, fungal contamination, if the …


read more

ANALYSIS OF TRACES OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN DIFFERENT MATRIX USING HIGH RESOLUTION ICP-OES

By: admin | Tuesday, October 28th, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

From iPODs to catalytic converters, from wind power generators to computer disc drives and hybrid electric vehicles – Rare Earth applications are ubiquitous and critical from all day’s life to advanced R&D. The Rare Earth Elements (REEs) have become uniquely indispensable in many electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic applications because of their ability to readily …


read more

ESTIMATION OF CAFFEINE CONTENT IN TEA & COFFEE BY UV/VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER, HPLC WITH UV/VIS DETECTOR & FTIR WITH HATR

By: admin | Monday, October 27th, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

Caffeine is a methylxanthine, and methylxanthines are known to have anti-inflammatory properties, is a bitter, white alkaloid and a stimulant. It is the world’s most widely consumed psychoactive drug which is naturally available in coffee plant, tea bush and Kola plant. In biological systems, caffeine acts in the central nervous system and acts as a …


read more

TOXICITY STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES

By: admin | Saturday, October 11th, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

Abstract While industrialization is an essential feature of economic growth in our country, industrial practices may also produce adverse environmental health consequences through the release of air , water and soil pollutants as well as from the disposal of hazardous wastes.The present study  deals with the assessment of pollution due to toxic heavy metals and …


read more

PHASE TRANSFORMATION AND PURITY DETERMINATION OF SULFUR IN CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE USING TGA-DTA-DSC

By: admin | Tuesday, September 9th, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

Sulfur is a very important element in today’s world. Its most important use is in the manufacture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Sulfur exists in two allotropic forms. The two forms of sulfur are known as α-form (Orthorhombic crystal structure) and β-form (Monoclinic crystal structure). Both allotropes are yellow, with the α-form a brighter yellow and the β-form …


read more

CORRELATION BETWEEN ASH FUSION TEMPERATURES (AFT) AND MINERAL MATTER IN SOME INDONESIAN COAL

By: admin | Tuesday, September 9th, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: Coal ash is an extremely complex mixture of organic and inorganic matter. The inorganic mineral matters mainly include SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, SO3, TiO2, Mn3O4 etc. Inside the power station boilers under high temperature condition, these inorganic matters of coal are transformed into products that may transfer to furnace walls and form …


read more

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION AND DETERMINATION OF ANTHRAQUINONE FROM TEA (GREEN & BLACK) & TEA BAGS BY HPLC

By: admin | Tuesday, September 9th, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction Anthraquinone, a yellow crystalline solid, is an aromatic organic compound with formula C14H8O2. It is poorly soluble in water but soluble in hot organic solvents. It is a building block of many dyes and is used in bleaching pulp for papermaking. Anthraquinone also be used for the production of cellulose. So, any traces of the substance that remain in the cellulose can transfer to …


read more

ESTIMATION OF BORON IN FERRO-ALLOYS USING ICP-OES BY MICRO-WAVE DIGESTION

By: admin | Friday, July 18th, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

In order to produce high grade plated steel sheets to be consumed at the automobile industry, blast furnace mills requires to ferro-alloys containing low boron. However, the content of boron differs largely depending on the sources to produce ore as raw material. Nowadays, the boron analysis in these ferro alloys are being carried out in …


read more

STUDY OF DECOMPOSITION KINETICS OF A POLYMER USING TGA

By: admin | Sunday, June 22nd, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: For development and selection of polymers for specific uses decomposition studies of polymer are extremely essential. This can be studied by classical method of gradually changing the temperature through the period and study the change visually. The process is incorrect and time consuming. A study of the kinetics of decomposition of a polymer is …


read more

A BRIEF STUDY ON FLAVONOIDS CONTENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TEA

By: admin | Sunday, June 22nd, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are ubiquitous in nature and are categorized, according to chemical structure, into flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins and chalcones. Over 4,000 flavonoids have been identified, many of which occur in fruits, vegetables and beverages (tea, coffee, beer, wine and fruit drinks). The flavonoids have aroused considerable interest recently because …


read more

ESTIMATION OF POTASSIUM IN MURIATE OF POTASH

By: admin | Monday, June 16th, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: Potassium chloride was historically known as Muriate of potash. This name is occasionally still encountered in association with its use as a fertilizer. It varies in colour from pink to red to white depending on the mining and recovery process used. White potash, sometimes referred to as soluble potash is used primarily for making …


read more

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTY EVALUATION OF LITHIUM BORO-SILICATE GLASS

By: admin | Wednesday, February 12th, 2014 | blogs | No Comments

Glass is an amorphous non-crystalline substance that displays a glass transition near its melting point. Most of the glasses we encounter are borosilicate glasses. The starting materials commonly used for making such types of glasses are quartz, boric acid, alumina and different carbonates. Accurate and rapid glass analysis is a critical factor in resolving batch …


read more

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS (UNKNOWN)

By: admin | Wednesday, December 11th, 2013 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction: TGA measures the amount and the rate of change of the mass of a sample as a function of temperature/time in a system with controlled atmosphere. The data obtained from the graph may be used to identify a polymer and to study its properties like a)      Moisture content b)      Compositional analysis of …


read more

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF BROMIDE

By: admin | Monday, July 15th, 2013 | blogs | No Comments

Abstract: Bromide ion is determined in spectrophotometer by using chloramine T as an oxidizing agent,Phenol Red and Methyl Red as colourimetric reagent,colour of which decrease with increasing bromide ion concentration. Principle:        Bromide in a chloride solution can be oxidized preferentially to elemental bromine which will dcolourize common indicators like phenol Red and …


read more

CHARACTERISATION OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON (TPH)

By: admin | Thursday, July 11th, 2013 | blogs | No Comments

Abstract: TPH, the term used to describe a family of several hundred chemical compounds those are made from crude oil and found in soil and water. Exposure to TPH such as gasoline or diesel fuel can affect human health, hence are required to be monitored globally. TPH contamination of the environment is potentially  widespread, particularly  …


read more

STUDY OF TOTAL POLYPHENOL CONTENT IN COMMERCIAL TEA

By: admin | Saturday, May 25th, 2013 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction Apart from water, tea is probably the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Even though the tea plant is cultivated all over the world, it grows best in tropical and subtropical areas with adequate rainfalls, good drainage, and a slightly acidic soil. The catechins present in green tea are commonly called polyphenols. Green …


read more

ESTIMATION OF HALIDES IN MINERALS, ORES & COMPOUNDS

By: admin | Friday, April 5th, 2013 | blogs | No Comments

Determination of halide is essential because of their detrimental property in certain compounds along with some beneficial properties. Usually halides are determined by argentometry (volumetric titration with AgNO3 soln with chromate as adsorption indicator). The disadvantage of this method is that sometimes end point detection becomes very difficult because of excessive precipitation of Ag halides during …


read more

ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT OXIDATION STATES OF CHROMIUM

By: admin | Friday, April 5th, 2013 | blogs | No Comments

Ferro alloys like ferro chrome are mostly produced in submerged electronic arc furnace. This process generates large amounts of slag. The slag is basically M2O3-MgO-SiO2 based with constituent of CaO and Cr (OX). Therefore slag contains chromium in different oxidation states besides Cr0: Procedure: Total Cr, Cr3+ and Cr0 was done by volumetric method and Cr+6 were done by …


read more

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF METHANOL

By: admin | Wednesday, April 3rd, 2013 | blogs | No Comments

Introduction Congeners are biologically active chemicals and are often contained in alcoholic beverages, in addition to ethanol, the key biologically active ingredient of alcohol. They are produced in the process of fermentation or ageing, when organic chemicals in the beverage break down. They may also be added during the production process to contribute to the …


read more

ESTIMATION OF CO2 IN ROCK PHOSPHATE USING FTIR

By: admin | Friday, December 7th, 2012 | blogs | No Comments

Phosphate rock denotes the product obtained from the mining and subsequent metallurgical processing of P-bearing ores. In addition to the main phosphate-bearing mineral, Phosphate rock deposits also contain accessory or gangue minerals and impurities. Although considerable amounts of accessory minerals and impurities are removed during beneficiation, the beneficiated ore still contains some of the original …


read more

ENDOTOXIN AND ITS IN VITRO TEST

By: admin | Wednesday, September 19th, 2012 | blogs | No Comments

Abstract: About 70 years ago it was coined that there were two types of Bacteria one Gram – Positive and one Gram-Negative (according to Dr. Hans Christian Gram) both of which can cause several health issues. Gram-negative bacteria freely roam around in our surrounding environment. So it is very much essential to test for the …


read more

ANALYSIS OF SLAG CONTENT IN FERRO ALLOYS PART I

By: admin | Monday, July 2nd, 2012 | blogs | No Comments

PART I – FERRO MANGANESE Slag is a partially vitreous byproduct of metal smelting to separate the metal fraction from the unwanted fraction. Ores often have unwanted minerals associated with them, like silica, and during the process of smelting this can combine with other materials in the furnace and the fuel to produce something that …


read more

DETERMINATION OF GYPSUM CONTENT

By: admin | Tuesday, April 10th, 2012 | blogs | No Comments

Gypsum is used as a building material for different purposes like setting retarder for portland cement, gypsum board, ceramic molding tools etc. However before using, it is important to know the characteristic of gypsum. The thermal characteristics of gypsum produce the following thermal changes: Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (stucco) has great commercial significance as a construction …


read more

ANALYSIS OF MELAMINE

By: admin | Monday, April 2nd, 2012 | blogs | No Comments

Melamine is an organic base and a trimer of cyanamide, with a 1,3,5-triazineskeleton. Like cyanamide, it contains 66% nitrogen by mass and, if mixed with resins, has fire retardant properties due to its release of nitrogen gas when burned or charred, and has several other industrial uses. Melamine is also a metabolite of cyromazine, a pesticide. It is formed in the body of mammals who have ingested cyromazine. It has …


read more

ANALYSIS OF PYROXINITE WITH ICP-OES

By: admin | Wednesday, March 28th, 2012 | blogs | No Comments

Pyroxinite is naturally occurring Magnesium Silicate mineral. It is an ultrabasic igneous rock consisting essentially of minerals of the Pyroxene group. The types of Pyroxene and the ore minerals present in the rock form the basis for determination of the variety of Pyroxinite. Pyroxinites are mainly composed of SiO2 and MgO whereas Cr2O3, CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3 etc …


read more

THERMO GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS OF UREA

By: admin | Thursday, January 12th, 2012 | blogs | No Comments

Principle: Urea is converted to biuret in the range 132 to 135°C (depending on purity) associated with loss in weight. Measuring the loss in weight of unknown samples and comparing with a standard urea, the amount of Urea present in the unknown samples can be estimated. The amount of urea present is also often calculated …


read more

ESTIMATION OF BIURET CONTENT IN UREA

By: admin | Thursday, November 3rd, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

In the past decade urea has surpassed and nearly replaced ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer. This has brought about new questions on urea and its use. Biuret [(H2N-CO-)2NH] is one of the impurities present in urea and can cause agronomic problems if placed near the seed or even if added as preplant in bands where …


read more

INDOOR AIR MONITORING OF CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

By: admin | Wednesday, October 12th, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

ABSTRACT: Occurrence of potentially toxic formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in indoor air is threat to human life. Woodwork  and cigarette smoking  are known as extensive sources of emission of  carbonyl compounds. Hence a simple and rapid method for determination of carbonyls in indoor air has been developed which includes sampling and analysis. The method …


read more

QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF LITHIUM

By: admin | Tuesday, August 16th, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

The wide applicability of lithium-based materials in the field of electronic industries especially for the rechargeable batteries is one of the upcoming technologies in today’s trend. Since lithium is known as quite toxic and prone to contamination, therefore, quantitative estimation of this material using highly precise instruments like the AAS (in emission mode) or the …


read more

DETERMINATION OF COBALT IN PURE COBALT METAL BY COMPLEXOMETRIC ANALYSIS

By: admin | Saturday, August 13th, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

Abstract : This method is based on absorption spectra in UV (aromatic hydrocarbons) or IR (aliphatic hydrocarbons) of pure analyzed components and calibrating mixtures of well defined fraction components. The basis of the presented method is the correlation equation between spectra of tested mixtures and spectra of their pure components. The method was tested in …


read more

DETERMINATION OF ALIPHATIC AND AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

By: admin | Saturday, August 13th, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

Abstract : This method is based on absorption spectra in UV (aromatic hydrocarbons) or IR (aliphatic hydrocarbons) of pure analyzed components and calibrating mixtures of well defined fraction components. The basis of the presented method is the correlation equation between spectra of tested mixtures and spectra of their pure components. The method was tested in …


read more

MEASUREMENT OF BTEX POLLUTION

By: admin | Saturday, August 13th, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

Abstract : The environmental fate, global warming effect and human health risk from mono aromatic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are of major concerns among many consequences of their anthropogenic emission. Present study aims to standardize the methodology for the measurement of BTEX ( i.e. Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene and Xylene), collected from the major sources …


read more

TOTAL STATION ASSESSMENT

By: admin | Wednesday, July 6th, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

MSK has added another Electronic Total Station in its fleet to strengthen its comprehensive stock pile and volume assessment activity for various commodities in Mines, Sidings, Ports, Plant & CFS. Machine Used: Electronic Total Station (MSK uses SOKKIA 50 RX) These Total Stations provide exceptionally dependable performance in the field to assess the stack quantity. It has longer range, …


read more

DETERMINATION OF BORON

By: admin | Wednesday, June 1st, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

Boron forms refractory oxides, carbides, nitrides which can not be broken into atoms in a small residence time in Flame. So the analysis by AAS should be done in high residence time Graphite Furnace. But boron has a tendency to form refractory carbides on reaction with the surface of the graphite tube which decreases the …


read more

ANALYSIS OF MICRONUTRIENTS

By: admin | Tuesday, May 17th, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

Fertilizers usually contain Nitrogen, Phosphorous & Potassium (NPK). Nowadays fertilizers are enriched with micronutrients like Cr, Mo, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg. They are usually added in fertilizers as their EDTA complexes (Ethylene diamine tetraacetate). Along with micronutrients amino acids are also added. So it is required that amino acids, micronutrient elements and EDTA content of …


read more

HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN COAL

By: admin | Saturday, May 14th, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

Coal is a natural product that is created through compressed organic matter containing virtually every element in the periodic table – mainly carbon, along with some heavy metals. These heavy metals refer to any metallic chemical element that has a high density and is toxic at low concentrations. The concentrations of these heavy metals vary …


read more

DETERMINATION OF INORGANIC ELEMENTAL CONSTITUENTS

By: admin | Tuesday, May 10th, 2011 | blogs | No Comments

The application of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) in the field of inorganic elemental analysis is very well known in the field of chemical analysis. The advantages of using the above technology are wide elemental coverage, very low detection limit, fast analysis time (all elements at once), wide analytical working range (ppb to …


read more

RECENT POSTS